Based on the meanings explained by the Salaf, and the Ahlus Sunnah (Ash'ari & Maturidi) scholars.
2 – Surah Al-Baqarah – Verses 8 to 20
Click Here to download pdf.
Read below online.
|وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ |8
|يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ |9
|فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللَّهُ مَرَضًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ |10
|وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ |11
|أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ |12
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا كَمَا آمَنَ النَّاسُ قَالُوا أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاءُ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ
|السُّفَهَاءُ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَعْلَمُونَ |13
وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْا إِلَىٰ شَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُوا إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ
|اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ |15
|أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ |16
مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ
|فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ |17
|صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ |18
أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِم مِّنَ
|الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ |19
ۚيَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ ۖ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْا فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا
|وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ |20
8. And some people say , ‘we believe in Allah and the last day’ and they are not believers.
9. They want to deceive Allah and those who believe ; they deceive not but their own selves, and they have no sense of it.
10. They have a disease in their hearts , so Allah further increased their disease, and they have a painful torment in return for their lie .
11. And when it is said to them, ‘do not cause corruption on earth’ , they say ‘we are rectifiers’.
12. Verily, they are corrupters but they have no sense of it.
13. And when it is told to them, ‘believe as other people have believed’ , they say ‘shall we believe like fools?’ ; verily, they are the fools but they know it not .
14. And when they meet those who believe, they say, ‘we believe’; and when they are alone with their satans , they say, ‘we are with you, we are just playing’ .
15. Allah decrees istihzaa (according to His Almighty Majesty) with them  and grants them respite to wallow on in their disobedience.
16. They are those people who have bought misguidance for guidance ; so their transaction brought no profit, and they didn’t even know the way of transacting .
17. Their parable is as if someone lit a fire, and when it illuminated whatever was around it, Allah took their light away and left them in darkness so they could not see .
18. Deaf, dumb and blind, then they won’t return.
19. Or as the water descending from the sky, containing in it darkness, thunderclap, and lightning ; they are clogging their fingers in their ears due to the thunderclaps, afraid of death , and Allah has surrounded the kafirs .
20. The lightning is such that it will take their eyes away ; when it lights up on them, they walk in it , and when it goes dark on them, they stand still; and if Allah Willed, He would have taken away their ears and eyes ; indeed, Allah is All-Powerful over everything .
 – From this we learn that the pathways to guidance were not closed to them from the start, which could have been a cause for an excuse, but in fact, it is due to their disbelief (kufr), and rancor, and vileness, and irreligiousness, and opposition to the truth and enmity to the prophets, ‘alaihimus salam. It is as if someone relentlessly opposes the doctor and ingests lethal poison, and there is no hope of him benefiting from medication, then he alone is worthy of condemnation!
 – Circumstances of revelation: From here onwards, 13 verses were revealed in relation to the munaafiqiin (hypocrites in religion) who were kafir in their batin (internal convictions) but presented themselves as Muslims on their zdhahir (outward). Allah Ta’ala said (وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ) (and they’re not believers); meaning that uttering the shahadah, claiming to be Muslim, observing the salah and fasting [etc.], is NOT enough to be a believer UNLESS there is an ascertaining of it (tasdiiq) from the heart.
Mas-ala (Case): From this we learn that all those sects who claim to be Muslims, but hold on to beliefs of kufr, the ruling upon all of them is that they are kafirs outside of Islam. In the Shari’ah, such people are called munaafiq. Their harm is more than that caused by open kafirs. There is a subtle allusive in saying (مِنَ النَّاسِ) (some people) that this group is so bereft of good attributes and human perfections that its mention is made without employing any quality or praise. It is just to say that they too are humans [i.e., just belong to the human race and nothing more].
Mas-ala (Case): From this we learn that in calling someone a ‘human’ (بشر), there IS a possible implication of the denial of one’s virtues and [human] perfections. This is why, time and again, those who call prophets ‘human’, have been called kafirs in the Quran and in reality, using such language in relation to prophets is far from adab (Islamic etiquette & manners) and is a convention of the kuffaar. Some mufassiriin (exegetes) have stated that using the words (مِنَ النَّاسِ) (some people) is for the listeners to [think and] be astonished that even such guileful, cunning and such idiots exist among people.
[Translator’s Note: It is a belief of the Ahlus Sunnah that prophets ARE from humans only, but they are THE MOST perfect humans and THE MOST perfect creations of Allah. What his eminence, the exegete is talking about in relation to those who call prophets as ‘human’ as being called kafirs in the Quran, correctly translated into idiomatic expression in English, is to say or imply that prophets are “just humans” or “mere humans” or “humans just like us” and indeed this is nothing but from the ways of the kuffaar, and time and again, the Quran makes reference of this claim of the kuffaar who used to deny the supremely-blessed-by-Allah, exalted characters of the prophets (Prophet Muhammad and/or previous prophets, ‘alaihimus salam), by calling them as ‘just a human’ or ‘mere human’ or ‘human like us’ and such wordings that mention human-ness only for the purpose of denying their virtues and exalted character traits. Muslims should not fall for the tricks of the enemies of our Master Rasulullah ﷺ, if they use such kind of comments and expressions and then give smart explanations like ‘but I’m only saying the truth’ and they should put such filthy ‘humans’ in their place. Islam doesn’t fall for this kind of “smartness”.]
 – Allah is exalted above it that someone deceives Him. He is The One Who Knows the secrets and what is hidden. The implication is that the munaafiqiin, in their disillusionment, want to deceive The Almighty; or that this IS [trying] deceiving The Almighty that they want to deceive The Messenger, ‘alaihis salam, because he is His delegate and Allah Ta’ala has bestowed the knowledge of secrets to His Beloved. He [the Prophet] has been made aware of the hidden kufr of the munaafiqiin, and the Muslims are also aware due to his [the Prophet’s] informing them. Then the deception of these irreligious people doesn’t succeed with Allah, nor His Messenger, nor on the believers. On the contrary, they are deceiving their own selves in reality.
Mas-ala (Case): From this verse we know that taqiyyah (concealing one’s true beliefs) is a severe sin. A madhhab that is built on taqiyyah is falsehood. The state of a person of taqiyyah is not worthy of trust, neither is his [public] tawbah (repentance) considered satisfactory. This is why the scholars have said (لَاتُقْبَلُ تَوْبَةُ الزِّنْدِیْقِ) (Do NOT accept the tawbah of a zindiiq).
[Translator’s Note: A zindiiq, as stated in the following footnote , is someone who claims to be Muslim, but holds beliefs of pure kufr by the consensus of the ummah. In the Shari’ah, he is the exact same thing as a munaafiq (hypocrite). The only difference is that a munaafiq is internally, a CONSCIOUS disbeliever, while the zindiiq convinces to himself and tries to convince others too that he is a Muslim, while he holds tight to his putrid beliefs. A good example of a zindiiq is someone who claims to be Muslim and yet says that homosexuality is permissible or a person who claims to be Muslim but says that kafirs too shall enter heaven or people like the ismai’ilis. When scholars say, “do not accept the tawbah” they are referring to human acceptance of public repentances as, in some cases in fiqh, a person needs to publicly repent in front of people and denounce his filthy beliefs/actions. People should not accept a zindiiq’s tawbah because of his track record in his inherently deceptive, sleazy and slimy character traits. However, any tawbah made with a true intention and sincerity, is acceptable in front of Allah.]
 – Bad beliefs have been called a disease of the heart; from this it is learnt that having faulty/bad beliefs is disastrous to one’s spiritual life.
Mas-ala (Case): From this verse, it is proven that lying is haram (forbidden) and it incurs a painful torment.
 – Mas-ala (Case): Friendships & affinities with the kuffaar, and complacency in deen for their sake; and adulation and flattery of the people of falsehood; and for their sake becoming a syncretist and refraining from expressing the truth – is the quality of a munaafiq (hypocrite in religion) and haram. It is THIS very quality that has been called the mischief of the munaafiqqin. These days, MANY people have adopted the attitude that they agree with anyone whose gathering they are sitting in [i.e., the whole “when in rome, do as the romans do” deal]. This is forbidden in Islam and it is a GREAT defect [and sin] for the zdhahir (outward) and the batin (inward) to not be in unision!
 – Here (اَلنَّاسُ) (people) refers either to the sahaba, or the believers, because due to knowing The Almighty, obedience, and prudence to ramifications [of actions], only they are worthy of being called “people”.
Mas-ala (Case): From (اٰمِنُوْا کَمَا اٰمَنَ) (believe as [other people have] believed) it has been established that following of the swaaliheen (pious people) is [much] praised and desired.
Mas-ala (Case): It is ALSO proven that the methodology of the Ahlus Sunnah IS the truth, as it incorporates the following of the swaaliheen.
Mas-ala (Case): The remaining sects are aloof from the pious, and therefore misguided.
Mas-ala (Case): Some [classical] scholars have stated that this verse is evidence that the tawbah (repentance) of a zindiiq can be accepted. [Baidzaawiy]
A zindiiq is someone who accepts prophethood, expresses the signs of Islam [outwardly], but inwardly holds such ‘aqaid that are kufr by consensus [of the scholars of the ummah]. He [zindiiq] too is included in munaafiqiin.
 – From this, it is known that calling the swaaliheen (pious people) as bad/foolish is the old way of the people of falsehood. The deviant sects of today too, speak ill of the pious predecessors – the rawafidz [speak ill] of the khulafaa ar-raashidiin (the rightly guided caliphs) and many of the sahaba; the khawarij [speak ill] of our master ‘Ali Murtadzaa, radzi Allahu Ta’ala ‘anhu and his dear ones; the ghayr muqallideen [speak ill] of the mujtahid imams and specially of Imam Al-A’azdham Abu Haniifah rahmatuLlahi ‘alaih; the wahabis [speak ill] of the majority of the awliyaa and the noble ones; the qadianis even [speak ill] of the former prophets; the [so called] “Quranists” [speak ill] of the sahaba and the muhadditheen (scholars of hadiith science); the naturists speak ill of all the elders of deen and unleash their tongues with taunts. From this verse we learn that these people are ALL in misguidance.
It contains a consoling for the pious scholars that they should not be very upset at the ill-talk of the misguided, [but rather] just understand that this is the oldest convention of the people of falsehood (ahl al-batil). [Madaarik]
[Translator’s Note: wahabis and ghayr muqallideen are pretty much the same thing in principle for the most part. The “naturists” as used by the exegete refers to some people who emerged in the subcontinent at a certain point in time in british india and they only believed in the laws of science and denied the physical reality of the miracles of the prophets and the karaamaat of the awliyaa. Some of the people mentioned are kafirs, some are not. Summarily, they have all been called people of misguidance.]
 – This ill-mannered language of the hypocrites [i.e., saying things like ‘shall we behave like fools] was not expressed by them in front of Muslims. To them [Muslims], they used to say, ‘we are sincere believers’, as is stated in the following verse (إِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا) (when they meet those who believe, they say, ‘we believe’). They used to express this vileness in their special gatherings. Allah Ta’ala exposed them. [Khazen]
Similarly, the misguided sects of today, hide their corrupted beliefs from Muslims, but Allah Ta’ala exposes their secrets through their books and writings. From this verse, Muslims are being alarmed that they stay alert towards the cunningness of the irreligious and not be deceived by them. [Translator’s emphasis: underline & bold]
 – Here ‘satan’ refers to those leaders/elders of the kuffaar who stay busy in devilry/shenanigans. [Khazen, and Baidzaawiy]
When these hypocrites meet them, they say ‘we are with you and our meeting with Muslims is only for the purpose of deception and mockery so that we know their secrets and we get chances of causing mischief [and sowing discord] among them.’ [Khazen]
 – It means that they manifested their Islam for the sake of mockery. This is rejection of Islam.
Mas-ala (Case): Mockery and jeering with the prophets, ‘alaihimus salam, and religion is kufr.
Circumstances of revelation: This verse was revealed in relation to ‘abdullah bin ubayy and other munaafiqiin. One day they saw a group of the sahaba approaching and ibn ubayy told his friends ‘see how I take them for a ride’. When the noble sahaba approached closer, ibn ubayy first took the hand of our master The Great Siddiiq [Abu Bakr] radzi Allahu ‘anhu, in his hand and praised him greatly, and then likewise he praised our masters ‘Ali and ‘Umar, radzi Allahu ‘anhum. Our master ‘Ali Murtudza, radzi Allahu ‘anhu, said ‘o ibn ubayy! Fear The Almighty. Give up on your hypocrisy because the munaafiqiin are the lowliest of creation.’ On this, he [ibn ubayy] then said, ‘these things were not said due to hypocrisy; we swear we are true believers like you.’ When they [the sahaba] left, he started to brag about his deception to his friends. On this, this verse was revealed that the munaafiqiin express belief and sincerity when meeting with believers, and when they part with them [believers], in their special gatherings they mock & jeer at them. [Narrated by Ath-Tha’alabi & Al-Wahidi, and Ibn Hajr and As-Suyuti weakened it in Lubab An-Nuquul]
Mas-ala (Case): From this we learn that mocking the blessed sahaba and the elders of the ummah is kufr.
 – Allah Ta’ala is pure and exalted above istihzaa (mocking/jeering) and all other faults. Here the PUNISHMENT for istihzaa (jeering/mocking) has been called istihzaa so that it is well established that this punishment is for that vile deed. At such an instance, comparing the punishment to the same deed [for which it is being applied] is pinnacle eloquence as in (جزاء سيـة سيـة) (the recompense for evil is evil); [and the] perfection in eloquent expression is that this sentence has not been relegated to the previous sentence because there, istihzaa (jeering/mocking) was in its real/literal meaning.
 – Buying misguidance for guidance, that is, adopting kufr instead of iman (belief), is a matter of a severe loss and destruction.
Circumstances of revelation: This ayah has been revealed in relation to the people who became kafir after having become Muslim; or in relation to the jews who, before the arrival of our Master Rasulullah ﷺ, believed in him [since he was prophesied in the Torah], but after the Master arrived and announced his prophethood, they rejected; or in relation to ALL kuffaar that Allah Ta’ala bestowed upon them a sound fitrah (disposition), made manifest the evidences for the truth, and opened up the channels to guidance – but they did not employ intelligence and justice, and opted for misguidance.
[Translator’s Note: Please note from the above that it is well possible for one to lose his faith after becoming Muslim. No Muslim should take his faith for granted, and always worry about safeguarding it. Only a fool takes his faith for granted and only a jahil would believe that it is not possible for one to lose faith after becoming Muslim.]
Mas-ala (Case): This verse establishes the permission for agreement-based sales transactions, that is, without explicitly uttering the words for the buying and selling contract, taking one item in exchange of the other, based merely on mutual agreement, is allowed.
 – Because if they knew how to trade, then they wouldn’t have given up on the real wealth (guidance).
 – This is the example of those whom Allah Ta’ala gave some guidance, or granted them some discerning power over it, and then they wasted it away and did not obtain everlasting wealth; their wealth is languish, regret, withering and fear. Even those munaafiqiin who expressed iman outwardly but wasted away the light of certitude by persisting on kufr in their hearts, are included in this; and those too who became apostates after becoming believers (mumin); and those too who were granted a sound disposition and the light of evidences manifested the truth, but still they did not take benefit from it and opted for misguidance. And when they are incapacitated to listen to, to believe, to obey and to see the path – of the truth – then their ears, tongues, eyes, they are all useless!
 – This is the other parable of those who buy misguidance for guidance, that just as rain is the cause for enlivening the earth and it brings with it ghastly thunderclaps and lightning – likewise, the Quran and Islam are the causes for the enlivening of hearts, and the mention of kufr, and shirk and hypocrisy [are] like gloomy darkness. Just as darkness prevents the wayfarer from reaching his destination, kufr and nifaq (hypocrisy) are deterrents to accomplishment of the journey. And the warnings [given in the Quran] are like the thunderclaps and the manifest proofs [of Islam] are akin to lightning flashes.
Circumstances of revelation: Two people from among the munaafiqiin deserted the Master ﷺ, and ran towards the mushrikiin. On the way, this same rain came down that is mentioned in the verse. It had severe noisy thunderclaps and lightning. When thunder struck, they clogged their ears with their fingers so that they don’t penetrate through their ears and kill them. When lightning flashed, they would walk, and when it didn’t, they were left blinded. They said to themselves that if The Almighty caused them to make it safe to the morning, they would appear in the Master’s court and give their hands in the Master’s ﷺ blessed hands [that is, owe allegiance to him sincerely] and hence, they did thusly and stayed steadfast upon Islam. Allah Ta’ala set their condition [on that thunderous night] as an example for the munaafiqiin that when they would appear in the blessed gathering [of the Prophet], they used to clog their ears with their fingers so that the Prophet’s speech would not perchance affect them, which would cause them to perish. And when their wealth and offspring used to flourish and they attained victories and war-booties, they would walk like those who walk under the flash of lightning, and say that now the religion of Muhammad is the truth. And when they lost wealth and offspring, and were afflicted with a calamity – like those flabbergasted by the gloom of rainfall – they used to say ‘these afflictions are only because of this deen’ and used to turn away from Islam. [Lubab An-Nuquul of As-Suyuti]
 – Just as clouds cast on a pitch dark night, and thunderclaps and lightning bewilder a traveler in the forest and he clogs his fingers into his ears terrified of death – likewise, the kuffaar shut their ears from listening to the Quran and they are fearful that its undeniable contents might cause them to sway towards Islam and give up the kufr-based faith of their forefathers, which to them, is the equivalent of death.
 – Therefore this evasiveness can’t benefit them in any way, because they can’t gain respite from the Wrath of the Almighty!
 – As it feels that a flash of lightning will take the sight away, similarly the lights of the rock solid proofs numb their eyes and their eyesight.
 – Just as on a rainy, dark night, when a traveler is lost; and when lightning shines, he walks a bit, and when it goes dark, he is left standing again – likewise, at the time of Islam’s success and illumination of [prophetic] miracles, and at times of ease, hypocrites sway towards Islam; and when a hardship befalls, they are left standing stranded in the pitch darkness of kufr and they start diverting away from Islam. Another verse on the same topic states thusly: (وَإِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ وَإِن يَكُن لَّهُمُ الْحَقُّ يَأْتُوا إِلَيْهِ مُذْعِنِينَ) (And when they’re called to Allah and His Messenger so that the Messenger judge between them, just then a group amongst them turns its face. And if there is an awardee amongst them, they approach in obedience 24:48-49). [Khazen, Saawi, and others]
[Translator’s note: Regarding the verses 24:48-49 quoted above, the mannerism of the hypocrites was such that they had tried & tested it plentiful times and knew for a fact that the Master Rasulullah’s ﷺ judgments were absolutely fair. So if one of them was on the right in any dispute, he wish that Rasulullah decree a verdict on his case, and if he was in the wrong, he would shy away from the verdict of Rasulullah knowing that the Master Rasulullah would exercise pinnacle fairness. More on this in their due place.]
 – It means that even though the character of the hypocrites was such that it deserved it, Allah did not destroy their hearing and seeing.
Mas-ala (Case): From this we learn that the effect rendered due to a cause is conditional to the Will of The Almighty. Without the Will [of The Almighty], causes alone can do nothing.
Mas-ala (Case): We also learn that [His] Will is NOT dependant on causes. He [Allah] can do what He Wills even without a cause [i.e., the effect can even be delivered in the absence of a cause].
 – ”Shayi” (شئى) (“thing”) refers to that which Allah Wills and it can be subject to His Will. ALL mumkinaat (possibilities) are included under “shayi” and that is why they are under [His] Qudrah (Power); and that which is not “mumkin” (intrinsically possible), it is either wajib (intrinsically necessary) or mumtani’ (absolutely impossible); [Allah’s] Will and Qudrah does NOT pertain to it [i.e., does not pertain to the wajib and the mumtani’]. Allah’s Dhaat (Self) and Sifaat (Attributes) are wajib (intrinsically necessary), and therefore they are NOT subject to Qudrah.
Mas-ala (Case): Lying and ALL negativities are muhaal (absolutely impossible) for Baari Ta’ala. Therefore, Qudrah has no relation to them.
[Translator’s Note: The honorable exegete has used the terminology of the science of kalam here. While it is beyond the scope of this translation to include a treatise on the science of kalam, for the purpose of understanding the eminent exegete’s comments, please note these elementary terminologies from the science of kalam:
I – Wajib – Intrinsically Necessary – It refers to that which ABSOLUTELY MUST exist/be. It is absolutely impossible for the wajib to NOT exist. It is absolutely impossible to deny the existence of it. Allah’s existence is wajib. It means that it is absolutely inconceivable to deny His existence. The mind has no choice BUT to accept that Allah exists. Allah’s Self & Attributes are wajib. Furthermore, being intrinsically necessary (wajib) means that His Self & Attributes are pre-eternally eternal with no beginning and post-eternally eternal with no end and do NOT go through any change or rise and fall etc.
Please keep in mind that here we are talking ONLY about the ABSOLUTELY necessary and not the practically necessary. To clarify, for instance, it is a necessary thing that ONLY women get naturally pregnant and give birth to babies. But this necessity is not absolute, rather, it is a necessity because Allah has willed for it to be such and no other way.
II – Mumkin/Jaiz – Intrinsically Possible – It refers to that whose existence can be possible and also its non-existence is possible. ALL of creation and ALL their actions, intentions, speeches etc. fall under this category. We exist because Allah Wills for us to exist. If He didn’t Will for us to exist, we wouldn’t have existed. Mumkin/jaiz things are KNOWN to have a beginning, have an end, go through changes, etc. Only that which is possible can go through a change, rise and fall, appearance, disappearance, etc. since going through a change implies beginning or end of an event or events. Obviously, that which is wajib is free of beginnings and ends because being associated with a beginning or end would mean that it is a mere possibility in and of itself. ALL possibilities (mumkinaat) are subject to Allah’s Will and Power.
Please keep in mind that here, we are talking about ALL that which CAN BE CONSIDERED “possible”.
To clarify, for instance, it is perfectly possible for the intellect to accept that a man can walk on water, or to accept a river being filled with orange juice. If Allah Wills for a man to walk on water, it will happen. If He Wills for a river to be filled with orange juice, it will surely happen. The idea of a man walking on water is a mere matter of what is “mumkin” and we know that ALL that is mumkin, is subject to His Will and Power. In sha Allah it shall be clear to the reader now, the meaning of the word “jaiz” or “mumkin” as used in basic kalam terminology. Everything that is mumkin in and of itself, whether it is a manifested reality, like you and me, or just a POSSIBLE reality like a river of orange juice, comes under Allah’s Will & Power.
III – Mustahiil/mumtani’/muhaal – That which is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE to exist. It is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE for something mumtani’ to exist. It is absolutely impossible for there to be another creator of the universe. It is absolutely impossible that the Creator and Sustainer of the universe seize to exist.
Please keep in mind that here we are talking ONLY about the ABSOLUTELY impossible and not the mere contingently impossible. For example, it is impossible for a man to become pregnant naturally, but this impossibility is not absolute, rather this impossibility exists because Allah Willed for things to be this way and they can’t be any other way.
IV – Qadeem – Pre-eternally eternal with no beginning. ONLY Allah and His Attributes are qadeem.
V – Haadith – Anything that has a beginning. Everything other than Allah and His Attributes is haadith. Changes are all haadith, since they are caused by Allah. (Please note this is haadith NOT hadiith. They are 2 different words with 2 different meanings. Hadiith is Prophetic narration.)
Allah and His Attributes are both qadeem as well as wajib.
(Please note that I am only mentioning as many kalam terms and arguments as required to understand the eminent exegete’s comments.)
With the underlying terminology clarified, let us come to the eminent exegete’s statement.
Allah’s Will & Power do NOT pertain to that which is wajib or mumtani’.
Let us see the explanations.
We already know that ONLY Allah’s Self & Attributes are qadeem (pre-eternally eternal with no beginning).
We also know that ONLY mumkinaat (possibilities) are haadith (something with a beginning)
1 – In the case of wajib –
– If it is said that Will & Power are associated with the existence of the wajib, it implies bringing into existence or change. But we know that Allah is qadeem. Only mumkinaat are haadith (brought into existence by Allah or changed by Allah).
– If it is said that Will & Power are associated with the NON-existence of the wajib, then this goes right against the very definition of wajib (that which MUST be)!
2 – In the case of the mumtani’/mustahiil –
– If it is said that Will & Power are associated with the existence of the mumtani’, then this goes against the very definition of mumtani’! Mumtani’ is that which is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE in and of itself.
– If it is said that Will & Power are associated with the non-existence of the mumtani’, then that is already the case, for the mumtani’ by its very definition is something that is absolutely impossible!
So we have understood that Allah’s Will & Power are concerned ONLY with the mumkinaat.
Hence, his eminence, the exegete’s statement (like that of ALL scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah): Allah’s Dhaat (Self) & Sifaat (Attributes) are wajib and therefore NOT subject to His Iraadah & Qudrah (Will & Power).
We also know that ALL attributes of Allah are those of perfection and therefore, using this terminology, the exegete stated that we also state that imperfections like lying and faults are mustahiil for Him, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala. Therefore, Allah’s Qudrah has no relation to them when we talk about Him. (Of course when we talk about creation, all their goodnesses and flaws are created by Allah and they are subject to His Qudrah.)
Let us see the benefit of the science of kalam in action:
Some jahil shayatiin claiming to be Muslims state that lying is in Allah’s Power. They say that because they try to ‘imagine’ Allah and in doing so, they compare Him to their own selves.
THEIR argument is that lying is not ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE for Allah, but rather contingently impossible. They say that Allah’s Speech is subject to His Will & Power and His Speech is not a lie because He has Willed not to lie.
They say this because they try to ‘imagine’ Allah and compare Him to their own selves. You & I have a certain degree of will and power over our speeches. We can choose to speak the truth or a lie. However ALL of our existence, as well as our human wills, as well as our human powers, as well as our created speech are from the MUMKINAAT, the INTRINSICALLY POSSIBLE, the haadith, the created.
These ignorant shaytans FAIL to see that Allah’s Will & Power are concerned ONLY with the mumkinaat (possibilities) and hawaadith (plural of haadith, i.e., the emergent, that which has a beginning).
Allah’s Self & Attributes are WAJIB (intrinsically necessary) & QADEEM (pre-eternally eternal).
These idiots fail to see that Allah’s Speech is WAJIB and QADEEM.
To say that Allah’s Speech is contingent to His Will & Power is to imply that His Speech is mumkin (only a possibility that may or may not be) and haadith (something that has a beginning, or can be changed) and this is PURE KUFR.
The belief of the Ahlus Sunnah is that Allah’s Speech is unlike our speech. It is NOT sounds and letters and NOT dependent on a medium. If we write something on a paper, every word has a beginning and an end, and the writing has to be on a medium, the paper. If we speak, our sound starts at a certain time and finishes at a certain time, and is dependent on airwaves for the sound to be carried and on hearing instruments like ears.
Allah’s Speech is not something that changes during time for changes are caused and haadith. Time and space are CREATIONS of Allah and they do NOT encompass Him or His Attributes.
His Speech is NOT composed of parts and sequential like our speeches. It is ONE pre-eternally eternal (qadeem) Speech. We can NOT imagine or comprehend Him or His Attributes.
Just a small clarification so that no doubt remains in the mind of the reader. When we say that the Quran is “the Word of Allah” or “the Speech of Allah” please note that there are TWO implications by the word ‘Quran’ –
a) Allah’s Uncreated (i.e. qadeem, pre eternally eternal) Speech that is a necessary (wajib) attribute of His.
b) The Arabic EXPRESSION – which is printed on paper, recited by the mouths, memorized and stored in the hearts. The expression is haadith. The printed word and our recitations are letters and sounds and have a beginning and an end and go through changes, i.e., haadith. However, they are WHAT HAVE COME TO US FROM ALLAH in our human-readable form as sounds and letters, and point to His Uncreated Pre-Eternally Eternal Speech – as we humans are incapable to comprehend the reality of His Speech.
To explain the concept clearly, and without comparing Allah to His creation – imagine that you deliver a speech in English and that a Chinese person does not know English. Someone translates your English speech into Chinese and then the Chinese person can read and understand it. Now the Chinese person would be an absolute fool to say that the translated speech in Chinese is not your speech! So now when we say “YOUR SPEECH” it can mean either of the two – your ORIGINAL speech in English OR your speech TRANSLATED in Chinese, which the Chinese person, who does not know English, understands.
In sha Allah, the arguments and comments presented would help the reader grasp the exegete’s statements and help to clearly understand that it is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE for Allah to lie.
This will also negate the stupid arguments of the stupid christians and atheists:
The shaytans who say that it is possible for Allah to lie say that if we do not accept this position, then we are limiting His Power. This is NO DIFFERENT that the idiotic argument of the christians who say that we are limiting His Power if we don’t accept that He can become human!
Both these people are idiots and kafirs.
Qadeem and haadith are two opposites and it is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE that one become the other. The qadeem has NO BEGINNING. The haadith HAS a beginning. It is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE for that which has no beginning and is pre-eternally eternal, to have a beginning!
Allah is qadeem.
Creation, ALL of it, is haadith.
We have just seen abundantly that Allah’s Power has no concern with the ABSOLUTE IMPOSSIBILE (mustahiil) and the INTRINSICICALLY NECESSARY/ABSOLUTE MUST (wajib).
His Power encompasses ALL possibilities (jaiz/mumkin).
Similarly the atheists try to be smart with Muslims when they ask dumb questions like:
“Do you think it is possible for Allah to create a stone that He can’t lift?”
The question itself is flawed. Answering ‘yes’ to this question is kufr, and answering ‘no’ is also kufr.
Answering ‘yes’ is kufr because – Powerlessness and inability are flaws. Allah is ONLY attributed with perfection. Whatever is not omnipotent is not Allah. It is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE for Him to have flaws. Answering ‘yes’ implies inability to lift the stone by His Power. (Also note that Allah is NOT a body, He is free of time and space, so we are not talking about “lifting” as bodies lift each other utilizing physical contact and physical strength. If someone believes Allah to be a body, he is only that much further worse a kafir, like the christians.)
Answering ‘no’ is kufr because – Again, powerlessness and inability are flaws. Whatever is powerless and unable is not Allah. It is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE for Him to have flaws or be attributed with powerlessness. Answering ‘no’ implies the inability to create! So answering ‘no’ is also kufr.
In such kinds of cases, the questioner who asks such jahil questions like christians and atheists, or the one who makes such idiotic statements to say that Allah can lie, must be harshly shown what an absolute idiot he is!
In sha Allah the reader will find this explanation helpful and beneficial in refuting the kadhdhabiya mu’atazilites who call themselves Muslim and suggest that it is possible for Allah to lie, and also the idiot christians and atheists and any other kuffaar who use similarly flawed arguments.]